Biswal, Thimmulappa, and the Johns Hopkins University hold intellectual property on the development of Nrf2-based therapeutics in COPD, and they have equity in Cureveda LLC, which was co-founded by Biswal and Thimmulappa, and where they serve as scientific consultants. These potential individual and institutional conflicts of interest have been reviewed and managed by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Under a licensing agreement between Brassica Protection Products and the Johns Hopkins University, the University is entitled to royalty received on sales of products/technology described in this article. The University owns Brassica Protection Products stock, which is subject to certain restrictions under University policy. The terms of this arrangement are being managed by the Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. No other competing interest were declared.
Leukotriene modifiers are oral tablets used once or twice daily to treat and prevent chronic asthma and allergic rhinitis. They may be used in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid for an enhanced effect. They can also be used to prevent symptoms due to triggers or exercise, but must be taken at least 3 hours before exposure. If you already take a leukotriene modifier to prevent asthma or allergy symptoms, do not use an extra dose to treat exercise-induced asthma. All patients should still have available for rescue a short-acting β-agonist.
The chances of experiencing short term side effects as a result of your asthma medication are very low because the medication goes straight into the airways and stays in the area where it is needed. Very little of the medication goes elsewhere in the body. Most asthma medications have very few side effects as long as you don’t use them too often. They are safe and effective. The most common side effects of reliever inhalers are shaky hands, headaches and muscle cramps (but normally these only occur when you’ve taken a high dose and these effects usually last for just a few minutes, at most a few hours).