Function of fats lipids and steroids

The basic structure of phospolipids is very similar to that of the triglycerides except that C–3 ( sn 3)of the glycerol backbone is esterified to phosphoric acid. The building block of the phospholipids is phosphatidic acid. Substitutions that can be added to phosphatidic acid include ethanolamine (phosphatidylethanolamines, PE), choline (phosphatidylcholines, PC: also called lecithins), serine (phosphatidylserines, PS), glycerol (phosphatidylglycerols, PG), myo -inositol (phosphatidylinositols, PI: these compounds can have a variety in the numbers of inositol alcohols that are phosphorylated generating polyphosphatidylinositols), and phosphatidylglycerol (diphosphatidylglycerols, DPG; more commonly known as cardiolipins). See the Lipid Synthesis page for images of the various phospholipids.

Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids, [32] along with the glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelins. The steroids , all derived from the same fused four-ring core structure, have different biological roles as hormones and signaling molecules . The eighteen-carbon (C18) steroids include the estrogen family whereas the C19 steroids comprise the androgens such as testosterone and androsterone . The C21 subclass includes the progestogens as well as the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids . [33] The secosteroids , comprising various forms of vitamin D , are characterized by cleavage of the B ring of the core structure. [34] Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their conjugates, [35] which in mammals are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and are synthesized in the liver. The plant equivalents are the phytosterols , such as β-sitosterol , stigmasterol , and brassicasterol ; the latter compound is also used as a biomarker for algal growth. [36] The predominant sterol in fungal cell membranes is ergosterol . [37]

Unlike  carbohydrates , proteins and nucleic acids they aren’t polymers but small molecules, with a molecular weights that range between 100 and 5000, and also vary considerably in polarity, including hydrophobic molecules, like triglycerides or sterol esters, and others more water-soluble like phospholipids or very short-chain fatty acids , the latter completely miscible with water and insoluble in non polar solvents.
The little or absent water-solubility of many of them means that they are subject to special treatments at all stages of their utilization, that is in the course of digestion , absorption , transport, storage and use.

Fats are bad conductors of heat. They are deposited under the skin, forming in some animals huge accumulations. For example, whale’s fat layer can be up to 1 m. This makes it possible for a warm-blooded animal to live in a cold water of polar ocean. Many mammals have a special fatty tissue, which plays a role of the thermostat, a kind of biological «heater». The tissue is called brown fat. It has a brown color due to the fact that is very rich in mitochondria of reddish-brown color due to the iron-containing protein located therein. This tissue produces thermal energy which is very important for mammals that live in conditions at low temperatures.

Lipids  are very diverse in both their respective structures and functions. These diverse compounds that make up the lipid family are so grouped because they are insoluble in water. They are also soluble in other organic solvents such as ether, acetone, and other lipids. Lipids serve a variety of important functions in living organisms. They act as chemical messengers, serve as valuable energy sources, provide insulation, and are the main components of membranes. Major lipid groups include  fats ,  phospholipids ,  steroids , and  waxes .​

Function of fats lipids and steroids

function of fats lipids and steroids

Fats are bad conductors of heat. They are deposited under the skin, forming in some animals huge accumulations. For example, whale’s fat layer can be up to 1 m. This makes it possible for a warm-blooded animal to live in a cold water of polar ocean. Many mammals have a special fatty tissue, which plays a role of the thermostat, a kind of biological «heater». The tissue is called brown fat. It has a brown color due to the fact that is very rich in mitochondria of reddish-brown color due to the iron-containing protein located therein. This tissue produces thermal energy which is very important for mammals that live in conditions at low temperatures.

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